Equal Credit Opportunity Act
The Equal Credit Opportunity Act (ECOA) statute provides that its purpose is to require financial institutions and other firms engaged in the extension of credit to "make credit equally available to all creditworthy customers without regard to sex or marital status." Moreover, the statute makes it unlawful for "any creditor to discriminate against any applicant with respect to any aspect of a credit transaction (1) on the basis of race, color, religion, national origin, sex or marital status, or age (provided the applicant has the capacity to contract); (2) because all or part of the applicant's income derives from any public assistance program; or (3) because the applicant has, in good faith, exercised any right under the Consumer Credit Protection Act."
The ECOA has two principal theories of liability: disparate treatment and disparate impact. Disparate treatment occurs when a creditor treats an applicant differently based on a prohibited basis, such as race or national origin. Disparate impact occurs when a creditor employs facially neutral policies or practices that have an adverse effect or impact on a member of a protected class unless it meets a legitimate business need that cannot reasonably be achieved by means that are less disparate in their impact.
In keeping with the broad reach of the statute's prohibition, the regulation covers creditor activities before, during, and after the extension of credit.